Local Wellness Plan

Click here to download a copy of the Littlefield ISD Local Wellness Plan


Table of Contents

 

Preamble ……………………………………………………………………2

School Wellness Committee …..…..……………………………………...3

Wellness Policy Implementation, Monitoring,

Accountability, and Community Engagement..……..................………..3

Nutrition …………………………………………....………………………..5

Physical Activity …………………………………………………………..  9

Other Activities that Promote Student Wellness ………………………12

Glossary ……………………………………………………………………14


Preamble

Littlefield ISD (hereto referred to as the District) is committed to the optimal development of every student. The District believes that for students to have the opportunity to achieve personal, academic, developmental and social success, we need to create positive, safe and health-promoting learning environments at every level, in every setting, throughout the school year.   

Research shows that two components, good nutrition and physical activity before, during and after the school day, are strongly correlated with positive student outcomes. For example, student participation in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) School Breakfast Program is associated with higher grades and standardized test scores, lower absenteeism and better performance on cognitive tasks.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7] Conversely, less-than-adequate consumption of specific foods including fruits, vegetables and dairy products, is associated with lower grades among students.[8],[9],[10] In addition, students who are physically active through active transport to and from school, recess, physical activity breaks, high-quality physical education and extracurricular activities – do better academically.[11],[12],[13],[14]. Finally, there is evidence that adequate hydration is associated with better cognitive performance. 15,16,17

This policy outlines the District’s approach to ensuring environments and opportunities for all students to practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors throughout the school day while minimizing commercial distractions.  Specifically, this policy establishes goals and procedures to ensure that:

  • Students in the District have access to healthy foods throughout the school day ‒ both through reimbursable school meals and other foods available throughout the school campus‒in accordance with Federal and state nutrition standards;
  • Students receive quality nutrition education that helps them develop lifelong healthy eating behaviors;
  • Students have opportunities to be physically active before, during and after school;
  • Schools engage in nutrition and physical activity promotion and other activities that promote student wellness;
  • School staff are encouraged and supported to practice healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviors in and out of school;
  • The community is engaged in supporting the work of the District in creating continuity between school and other settings for students and staff to practice lifelong healthy habits; and
  • The District establishes and maintains an infrastructure for management, oversight, implementation, communication about and monitoring of the policy and its established goals and objectives.

This policy applies to all students, staff and schools in the District. Specific measureable goals and outcomes are identified within each section below.

School Wellness Committee
  1. Committee Role and Membership

    The District will convene a representative Student Health Advisory Council (SHAC) that meets at least four times per year to establish goals for and oversee school health and safety policies and programs, including development, implementation and periodic review and update of this district-level wellness policy (Local Wellness Plan, or LWP). 

    The SHAC membership will represent all school levels (elementary and secondary schools) and include (to the extent possible), but not be limited to: parents and caregivers; students; representatives of the school nutrition program (e.g., school nutrition director); physical education teachers; health education teachers; school health professionals (e.g., health education teachers, school health services staff [e.g., nurses, physicians, dentists, health educators, and other allied health personnel who provide school health services], and mental health and social services staff [e.g., school counselors, psychologists, social workers, or psychiatrists]; school administrators (e.g.., superintendent, principal, vice principal), school board members; health professionals (e.g., dietitians, doctors, nurses, dentists); and the general public. When possible, membership will also include Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education coordinators (SNAP-EDEDSNAP-Ed). To the extent possible, the SHAC will include representatives from each school building and reflect the diversity of the community. 

    Leadership

    The Assistant Superintendent or designee(s) will convene the SHAC and facilitate development of any updates to the LWP, and will ensure each school’s compliance with the policy. 

  2. Wellness Policy Implementation, Monitoring, Accountability and Community Engagement

    Implementation Plan

    The District will develop and maintain a plan for implementation to manage and coordinate the execution of this wellness policy. The plan delineates roles, responsibilities, actions and timelines; and includes information about who will be responsible to make what change, by how much, where and when; as well as specific goals and objectives for nutrition standards for all foods and beverages available on the school campus, food and beverage marketing, nutrition promotion and education, physical activity, physical education and other school-based activities that promote student wellness. It is recommended that the school use the Healthy Schools Program online tools to complete a school-level assessment based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s School Health Index, create an action plan that fosters implementation and generate an annual progress report.    

    This wellness policy and the progress reports can be found at: www.littlefield.k12.tx.us

    Recordkeeping

    The District will retain records to document compliance with the requirements of the LWP at the Administration Building, 1207 E. 14th Street, Littlefield, Texas. Documentation maintained in this location will include but will not be limited to:

    • The written wellness policy;
    • Documentation demonstrating that the LWP has been made available to the public;
    • Documentation of efforts to review and update the LWP; including an indication of who is involved in the update and methods the district uses to make stakeholders aware of their ability to participate on the SHAC.
    • Documentation to demonstrate compliance with the annual public notification requirements;
    • The most recent assessment on the implementation of the LWP;
    • Documentation demonstrating the most recent assessment on the implementation of the LWP has been made available to the public.

       Annual Notification of Policy

      The District will actively inform families and the public each year of basic information about the LWP, including its content, any updates to the plan and implementation status. The District will make this information available via the district website and/or district-wide communications.

      Triennial Progress Assessments

      At least once every three years, the District will evaluate compliance with the wellness policy to assess the implementation of the policy and include:

  3. Nutrition

    School Meals

    Our school district is committed to serving healthy meals to children, with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free and low-fat milk; that are moderate in sodium, low in saturated fat, and have zero grams trans fat per serving (nutrition label or manufacturer’s specification); and to meeting the nutrition needs of school children within their calorie requirements. The school meal programs aim to improve the diet and health of school children, help mitigate childhood obesity, model healthy eating to support the development of lifelong healthy eating patterns and support healthy choices while accommodating cultural food preferences and special dietary needs.

    All schools within the District participate in USDA child nutrition program by providing a free lunch and breakfast to all students during the regular school year through the Community Eligibility Program. Additionally, the District provides free meals through the Summer Feeding Program.  These programs:

    • Are accessible to all students;
    • Are appealing and attractive to children;
    • Are served in clean and pleasant settings;
    • Meet or exceed current nutrition requirements established by local, state, and Federal statutes and regulations. (The District offers reimbursable school meals that meet USDA nutrition standards.)
    • Announced or posted daily to encourage participation

      Staff Qualifications and Professional Development

      All school nutrition program directors, managers and staff will meet or exceed hiring and annual continuing education/training requirements in the USDA professional standards for child nutrition professionals. These school nutrition personnel will refer to USDA’s Professional Standards for School Nutrition Standards website to search for training that meets their learning needs.

      Water

      To promote hydration, free, safe, unflavored drinking water will be available to all students throughout the school day* and throughout every school campus* (“school campus” and “school day” are defined in the glossary). The District will make drinking water available where school meals are served during mealtimes. 

      Competitive Foods and Beverages

      The District is committed to ensuring that all foods and beverages available to students on the school campus* during the school day* support healthy eating. The foods and beverages sold and served outside of the school meal programs (e.g., “competitive” foods and beverages) will meet the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards, at a minimum. Smart Snacks aim to improve student health and well-being, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. A summary of the standards and information, as well as a Guide to Smart Snacks in Schools are available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/healthierschoolday/tools-schools-smart-snacks. The Alliance for a Healthier Generation provides a set of tools to assist with implementation of Smart Snacks available at www.foodplanner.healthiergeneration.org.

      To support healthy food choices and improve student health and well-being, all foods and beverages outside the reimbursable school meal programs that are sold to students on the school campus during the school day will meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks nutrition standards. These standards will apply in all locations and through all services where foods and beverages are sold, which may include, but are not limited to, à la carte options in cafeterias, vending machines, school stores and snack or food carts.

      Celebrations and Rewards

      All foods offered on the school campus will meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards including:

  4. Physical Activity

    Children and adolescents should participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. A substantial percentage of students’ physical activity can be provided through a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). A CSPAP reflects strong coordination and synergy across all of the components: quality physical education as the foundation; physical activity before, during and after school; staff involvement and family and community engagement and  the district is committed to providing these opportunities. Schools will ensure that these varied physical activity opportunities are in addition to, and not as a substitute for, physical education (addressed in “Physical Education” subsection).

    Physical activity during the school day (including but not limited to recess, classroom physical activity breaks or physical education) will not be withheld as punishment for any reason.  The district will provide teachers and other school staff with a list of ideas for alternative ways to discipline students.

    To the extent practicable, the District will ensure that its grounds and facilities are safe and that equipment is available to students to be active. The District will conduct necessary inspections and repairs. 

    • Through a formal joint- or shared-use agreement, indoor and outdoor physical activity facilities and spaces will be open to students, their families, and the community outside of school.
    • The District will work with schools to ensure that inventories of physical activity supplies and equipment are known and, when necessary, will work with community partners to ensure sufficient quantities of equipment are available to encourage physical activity for as many students as possible.

      Physical Education

      The District will provide students with physical education, using an age-appropriate, sequential physical education curriculum consistent with national and state standards for physical education.  The physical education curriculum will promote the benefits of a physically active lifestyle and will help students develop skills to engage in lifelong healthy habits, as well as incorporate essential health education concepts.  The curriculum will support the essential components of physical education.

      All students will be provided equal opportunity to participate in physical education classes. The District will make appropriate accommodations to allow for equitable participation for all students and will adapt physical education classes and equipment as necessary. 

      All elementary students in each grade will receive physical education for at least 60-89 minutes per week throughout the school year.

      All secondary students (middle and high school) are required to take the equivalent of one academic year of physical education. 

      The District physical education program will promote student physical fitness through individualized fitness and activity assessments (via the Presidential Youth Fitness Program or other appropriate assessment tool) and will use criterion-based reporting for each student.   

      Essential Physical Activity Topics in Health Education

      Health education will be required in all grades (elementary) and the district will require middle and high school students to take and pass at least one health education course. The District will include in the health education curriculum a minimum of 12 the following essential topics on physical activity:

  5. Other Activities that Promote Student Wellness
  • The extent to which schools under the jurisdiction of the District are in compliance with the LWP; and
  • A description of the progress made in attaining the goals of the District’s LWP.

    The position/person responsible for managing the triennial assessment and contact information is the High School Nurse in conjunction with the superintendent and food service personnel. 

    The District will notify the Board of Trustees of the results of the of the triennial progress report and have it available for the public in the records at the Administration Building. 

    Revisions and Updating the Policy

    The SHAC  will update or modify the wellness policy based on the results of the annual progress report and the triennial assessments, and/or as community needs change and goals are met.  The wellness policy will be assessed and updated as indicated at least every three years, following the triennial assessment.

    Community Involvement, Outreach and Communications

    The District is committed to being responsive to community input, which begins with awareness of the LWP.  The District will actively communicate ways in which representatives of SHAC and others can participate in the development, implementation and periodic review and update of the LWP through a variety of appropriate means. The District will also inform parents of the improvements that have been made to school meals and compliance with school meal standards, availability of child nutrition programs and how to apply, and a description of and compliance with Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards. The District will use electronic mechanisms, such as email or displaying notices on the district’s website, as well as non-electronic mechanisms, such as presentations to parents, or sending information home to parents, to ensure that all families are actively notified of the content of, implementation of, and updates to the LWP, as well as how to get involved and support the LWP. The District will ensure that communications are culturally and linguistically appropriate to the community, and accomplished through means similar to other ways that the district and individual schools are communicating important school information with parents.

    The District will actively notify the public about the content of or any updates to the wellness policy annually, at a minimum. The District will also use these mechanisms to inform the community about the availability of the annual and triennial reports.

  1. Celebrations and parties. The district will provide a list of healthy party ideas to parents and teachers, including non-food celebration ideas. Healthy party ideas are available from the Alliance for a Healthier Generation and from the USDA.
  2. Classroom snacks brought by parents. The District will provide to parents a list of foods and beverages that meet Smart Snacks nutrition standards.
  3. Rewards and incentives. The District will provide teachers and other relevant school staff a list of alternative ways to reward children. Foods and beverages will not be used as a reward, or withheld as punishment for any reason, such as for performance or behavior. [Meets Healthy Schools Program Silver-level criteria]

    Fundraising

    Foods and beverages that meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks in Schools nutrition standards may be sold through fundraisers on the school campus* during the school day*. The District will make available to parents and teachers a list of healthy fundraising ideas [examples from the Alliance for a Healthier Generation and the USDA].

    Nutrition Promotion

    Nutrition promotion and education positively influence lifelong eating behaviors by using evidence-based techniques and nutrition messages, and by creating food environments that encourage healthy nutrition choices and encourage participation in school meal programs. Students and staff will receive consistent nutrition messages throughout schools, classrooms, gymnasiums, and cafeterias. Nutrition promotion also includes marketing and advertising nutritious foods and beverages to students and is most effective when implemented consistently through a comprehensive and multi-channel approach by school staff, teachers, parents, students and the community.

    The District will promote healthy food and beverage choices for all students throughout the school campus, as well as encourage participation in school meal programs. This promotion will occur through:

  • Implementing evidence-based healthy food promotion techniques through the school meal programs using Smarter Lunchroom techniques; and
  • Ensuring 100% of foods and beverages promoted to students meet the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards. Additional promotion techniques that the District and individual schools may use are available at http://www.foodplanner.healthiergeneration.org/.

    Nutrition Education

    The District will teach, model, encourage and support healthy eating by all students. Schools will provide nutrition education and engage in nutrition promotion that:

  • Is designed to provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to promote and protect their health;
  • Is part of not only health education classes, but also integrated into other classroom instruction through subjects such as math, science, language arts, social sciences and elective subjects;
  • Includes enjoyable, developmentally-appropriate, culturally-relevant and participatory activities, such as cooking demonstrations or lessons, promotions, taste-testing, farm visits and school gardens;
  • Promotes fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, low-fat and fat-free dairy products and healthy food preparation methods;
  • Emphasizes caloric balance between food intake and energy expenditure (promotes physical activity/exercise);
  • Links with school meal programs, cafeteria nutrition promotion activities, school gardens, Farm to School programs, other school foods and nutrition-related community services;
  • Teaches media literacy with an emphasis on food and beverage marketing; and
  • Includes nutrition education training for teachers and other staff.

    Essential Healthy Eating Topics in Health Education

    The District will include in the health education curriculum a minimum of 12 of the following essential topics on healthy eating:

  • Relationship between healthy eating and personal health and disease prevention
  • Food guidance from MyPlate
  • Reading and using FDA's nutrition fact labels
  • Eating a variety of foods every day
  • Balancing food intake and physical activity
  • Eating more fruits, vegetables and whole grain products
  • Choosing foods that are low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol and do not contain trans fat
  • Choosing foods and beverages with little added sugars
  • Eating more calcium-rich foods
  • Preparing healthy meals and snacks
  • Risks of unhealthy weight control practices
  • Accepting body size differences
  • Food safety
  • Importance of water consumption
  • Importance of eating breakfast
  • Making healthy choices when eating at restaurants
  • Eating disorders
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Reducing sodium intake
  • Social influences on healthy eating, including media, family, peers and culture
  • How to find valid information or services related to nutrition and dietary behavior
  • How to develop a plan and track progress toward achieving a personal goal to eat healthfully
  • Resisting peer pressure related to unhealthy dietary behavior
  • Influencing, supporting, or advocating for others’ healthy dietary behavior

    Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools

    The District is committed to providing a school environment that ensures opportunities for all students to practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors throughout the school day while minimizing commercial distractions. The District strives to teach students how to make informed choices about nutrition, health and physical activity. These efforts will be weakened if students are subjected to advertising on District property that contains messages inconsistent with the health information the District is imparting through nutrition education and health promotion efforts. It is the intent of the District to protect and promote student’s health by permitting advertising and marketing for only those foods and beverages that are permitted to be sold on the school campus, consistent with the District’s wellness policy.

    Any foods and beverages marketed or promoted to students on the school campus* during the school day* will meet or exceed the USDA Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards.

    Food and beverage marketing is defined as advertising and other promotions in schools. Food and beverage marketing often includes an oral, written, or graphic statements made for the purpose of promoting the sale of a food or beverage product made by the producer, manufacturer, seller or any other entity with a commercial interest in the product.[15] This term includes, but is not limited to the following:

  • Brand names, trademarks, logos or tags, except when placed on a physically present food or beverage product or its container.
  • Displays, such as on vending machine exteriors
  • Corporate brand, logo, name or trademark on school equipment, such as marquees, message boards, scoreboards or backboards (Note: immediate replacement of these items are not required; however, districts will replace or update scoreboards or other durable equipment when existing contracts are up for renewal or to the extent that is in financially possible over time so that items are in compliance with the marketing policy.)
  • Corporate brand, logo, name or trademark on cups used for beverage dispensing, menu boards, coolers, trash cans and other food service equipment; as well as on posters, book covers, pupil assignment books or school supplies displayed, distributed, offered or sold by the District.
  • Advertisements in school publications or school mailings.
  • Free product samples, taste tests or coupons of a product, or free samples displaying advertising of a product.

    As the District/school nutrition services/Athletics Department/PTA/PTO reviews existing contracts and considers new contracts, equipment and product purchasing (and replacement) decisions should reflect the applicable marketing guidelines established by the LWP.

  • The physical, psychological, or social benefits of physical activity
  • How physical activity can contribute to a healthy weight
  • How physical activity can contribute to the academic learning process
  • How an inactive lifestyle contributes to chronic disease
  • Health-related fitness, that is, cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition
  • Differences between physical activity, exercise and fitness
  • Phases of an exercise session, that is, warm up, workout and cool down
  • Overcoming barriers to physical activity
  • Decreasing sedentary activities, such as TV watching
  • Opportunities for physical activity in the community
  • Preventing injury during physical activity
  • Weather-related safety, for example, avoiding heat stroke, hypothermia and sunburn while being physically active
  • How much physical activity is enough, that is, determining frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity
  • Developing an individualized physical activity and fitness plan
  • Monitoring progress toward reaching goals in an individualized physical activity plan
  • Dangers of using performance-enhancing drugs, such as steroids
  • Social influences on physical activity, including media, family, peers and culture
  • How to find valid information or services related to physical activity and fitness
  • How to influence, support, or advocate for others to engage in physical activity
  • How to resist peer pressure that discourages physical activity.

    Recess (Elementary)

    All elementary schools will offer at least 20 minutes of recess on all or most days during the school year.  If recess is offered before lunch, schools will have appropriate hand-washing facilities and/or hand-sanitizing mechanisms located just inside/outside the cafeteria to ensure proper hygiene prior to eating and students are required to use these mechanisms before eating. Hand-washing time, as well as time to put away coats/hats/gloves, will be built in to the recess transition period/timeframe before students enter the cafeteria.

    Outdoor recess will be offered when weather is feasible for outdoor play.

    In the event that the school or district must conduct indoor recess, teachers and staff will follow the indoor recess guidelines that promote physical activity for students, to the extent practicable. Recess will complement, not substitute, physical education class. Recess monitors or teachers will encourage students to be active, and will serve as role models by being physically active alongside the students whenever feasible.

    Classroom Physical Activity Breaks (Elementary and Secondary)

    The District recognizes that students are more attentive and ready to learn if provided with periodic breaks when they can be physically active or stretch. Thus, students will be offered periodic opportunities to be active or to stretch throughout the day on all or most days during a typical school week. The District recommends teachers provide short (3-5-minute) physical activity breaks to students during and between classroom time.These physical activity breaks will complement, not substitute, for physical education class, recess, and class transition periods.

    The District will provide resources and links to resources, tools, and technology with ideas for classroom physical activity breaks. Resources and ideas are available through USDA and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation

    Active Academics

    Teachers will incorporate movement and kinesthetic learning approaches into “core” subject instruction when possible (e.g., science, math, language arts, social studies and others) and do their part to limit sedentary behavior during the school day.

    The District will support classroom teachers incorporating physical activity and employing kinesthetic learning approaches into core subjects by providing annual professional development opportunities and resources, including information on leading activities, activity options, as well as making available background material on the connections between learning and movement.

    Teachers will serve as role models by being physically active alongside the students whenever feasible.

    Before and After School Activities

    The District offers opportunities for students to participate in physical activity either before and/or after the school day (or both) through a variety of methods. The District will encourage students to be physically active before and after school by: by encouraging participation in interscholastic sports, extracurricular activities such as band, and summer activities and sports.

The District will integrate wellness activities across the entire school setting, not just in the cafeteria, other food and beverage venues and physical activity facilities. The District will coordinate and integrate other initiatives related to physical activity, physical education, nutrition and other wellness components so all efforts are complementary, not duplicative, and work towards the same set of goals and objectives promoting student well-being, optimal development and strong educational outcomes.

Schools in the District are encouraged to coordinate content across curricular areas that promote student health, such as teaching nutrition concepts in mathematics, with consultation provided by either the school or the District’s curriculum experts. 

All school-sponsored events will adhere to the wellness policy guidelines. All school-sponsored wellness events will include physical activity and healthy eating opportunities when appropriate. 

Community Partnerships

The District will attempt to develop relationships with community partners (e.g., hospitals, universities/colleges, local businesses, SNAP-Ed providers and coordinators, etc.) in support of this LWP’s implementation.  Existing and new community partnerships and sponsorships will be evaluated to ensure that they are consistent with the wellness policy and its goals. 

Community Health Promotion and Family Engagement

The District will promote to parents/caregivers, families, and the general community the benefits of and approaches for healthy eating and physical activity throughout the school year. Families will be informed and invited to participate in school-sponsored activities and will receive information about health promotion efforts.  

As described in the “Community Involvement, Outreach, and Communications” subsection, the District will use electronic mechanisms (e.g., email or displaying notices on the district’s website), as well as non-electronic mechanisms, (e.g., presentations to parents or sending information home to parents), to ensure that all families are actively notified of opportunities to participate in school-sponsored activities and receive information about health promotion efforts. 

Staff Wellness and Health Promotion

 The SHAC will have a staff wellness subcommittee that focuses on staff wellness issues, identifies and disseminates wellness resources and performs other functions that support staff wellness in coordination with human resources staff. 

 The District will implement strategies to support staff in actively promoting and modeling healthy eating and physical activity behaviors.  The District promotes staff member participation in health promotion programs and will support programs for staff members on healthy eating/weight management that are accessible and free or low-cost.

 Professional Learning

 When feasible, the District will offer annual professional learning opportunities and resources for staff to increase knowledge and skills about promoting healthy behaviors in the classroom and school (e.g., increasing the use of kinesthetic teaching approaches or incorporating nutrition lessons into math class). Professional learning will help District staff understand the connections between academics and health and the ways in which health and wellness are integrated into ongoing district reform or academic improvement plans/efforts.   

Glossary:

 Extended School Day – the time during, before and afterschool that includes activities such as clubs, intramural sports, band and choir practice, drama rehearsals and more.

 School Campus - areas that are owned or leased by the school and used at any time for school-related activities, including on the outside of the school building, school buses or other vehicles used to transport students, athletic fields and stadiums (e.g., on scoreboards, coolers, cups, and water bottles), or parking lots.

School Day – the time between midnight the night before to 30 minutes after the end of the instructional day.

 Triennial – recurring every three years.

_________________

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[2] Meyers AF, Sampson AE, Weitzman M, Rogers BL, Kayne H. School breakfast program and school performance. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1989;143(10):1234–1239.

[3] Murphy JM. Breakfast and learning: an updated review. Current Nutrition & Food Science. 2007; 3:3–36.

[4] Murphy JM, Pagano ME, Nachmani J, Sperling P, Kane S, Kleinman RE. The relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city school sample. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 1998;152(9):899–907.

[5] Pollitt E, Mathews R. Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998; 67(4), 804S–813S.

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[7] Taras, H. Nutrition and student performance at school. Journal of School Health. 2005;75(6):199–213.

[8] MacLellan D, Taylor J, Wood K. Food intake and academic performance among adolescents. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research. 2008;69(3):141–144.

[9] Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Dixon LB, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Correlates of inadequate consumption of dairy products among adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education. 1997;29(1):12–20.

[10] Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Correlates of inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Preventive Medicine. 1996;25(5):497–505.

[11] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance.  Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010.

[12] Singh A, Uijtdewilligne L, Twisk J, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw M. Physical activity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2012; 166(1):49-55.

[13] Haapala E, Poikkeus A-M, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Tompuri T, Lintu N, Väisto J, Leppänen P, Laaksonen D, Lindi V, Lakka T. Association of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic skills – A follow-up study among primary school children. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(9): e107031.

[14] Hillman C, Pontifex M, Castelli D, Khan N, Raine L, Scudder M, Drollette E, Moore R, Wu C-T, Kamijo K. Effects of the FITKids randomized control trial on executive control and brain function. Pediatrics 2014; 134(4): e1063-1071.

15 Change Lab Solutions. (2014). District Policy Restricting the Advertising of Food and Beverages Not Permitted to be Sold on School Grounds. Retrieved from http://changelabsolutions.org/publications/district-policy-school-food-ads